An autoimmune mechanism has been early suggested by the association between nam and the abovementioned antisrp aabs 50, 55. It is characterized by subacute predominantly proximal weakness, elevated serum creatine kinase, and a muscle biopsy showing predominantly necrotic and regenerating fibers with absent or minimal inflammation. Importance necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is characterized pathologically by necrotic muscle fibers with absent or minimal inflammation. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam, also known as immunemediated necrotizing myopathy imnm, is a very rare form of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies iim and is a systemic autoimmune muscle disease. Antisrp aabs mainly, but not exclusively, target the 54 kda subunit of the srp complex localized in the cytoplasm or at the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, when bound to the srp receptor. Pain started the week of 817 myopathy medicine core myopathy central core myopathy rod myopathy statins and elevated liver enzymes miyoshi myopathy distal myopathy hyperthyroid myopathy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy comprises only 16% of this group. The present article summarizes the main features of statinrelated imnm, describing diagnosis, classification, epidemiology. The clinical spectrum of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Statin induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy article pdf available in journal of the neurological sciences 35112 march 2015 with 1,683 reads how we measure reads. Unlike selflimited statin myopathy, this condition usually requires aggressive. Rituximab therapy in necrotizing autoimmune myopathy.
Necrotising autoimmune myopathy nam, otherwise known as immunemediated necrotising myopathy imnm, is an increasingly recognised condition that presents as a subacute symmetrical proximal myopathy accompanied by high creatine kinase ck levels. Trial design in adult idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, with the exception of inclusion body myositis, 1012 october 2003, naarden, the netherlands. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy with tubular aggregates. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is a rare and emerging entity of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy iim. Autoimmune necrotising myopathy and hmgcr antibodies. Increasing incidence of immunemediated necrotizing myopathy. Necrotizing myopathy is affecting all my proximal muscles, i am now on my therapy polymyositis statin waiting for another blood draw to check ck levels. Statinassociated necrotizing autoimmune myositis complicated. The disease process of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is still not completely understood.
Dec 18, 2017 necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is a relatively recently discovered subgroup of inflammatory myopathies. We present a case of sinam after a decade of atorvastatin use, leading. Statininduced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy sinam, a subtype of inflammatory myopathy, is an exceedingly rare but severe side effect of statin use that manifests as progressive muscle weakness. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies are clinically characterized by muscle weakness of limb girdle muscles, whereas extramuscular involvement is usually mild or absent allenbach. Statininduced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy sciencedirect. A rapidly progressive case of statininduced necrotizing. We examined a cohort of australian patients with statin exposure who developed a necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam associated with a novel autoantibody against 3hydroxy3methylglutarylcoenzyme a reductase hmgcr and describe the clinical and therapeutic challenges of managing these patients and an optimal therapeutic strategy. The chief symptom that patients present with is a severe weakness of the muscles of the body. Necrotizing myopathy or also referred to necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is a rare muscular disease that is believed to be caused by a malfunction of the bodys immune system. Features and outcomes of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy jama. However, a delay in the diagnosis may lead to potential complications as the disease progresses rapidly. The prevalence and annual incidence of nam are not known but the disorder is very rare. Statins lower serum cholesterol concentrations by inhibiting the enzyme 3hydroxy3methylglutarylcoenzyme a reductase hmgcr.
Statininduced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy sinam is an exceptionally rare yet devastating complication of statin therapy that can occur at any time after initiation. Autoimmune necrotizing myopathy nam immunemediated necrotizing. Necrotizing myopathy can also be referred to as necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam or immunemediated necrotizing myopathy imnm. Statins are widely prescribed medications to prevent cardiovascular events. The condition is characterized by signs of necrosis, or cell death, in the muscles, which causes weakness and fatigue.
It should be reminded that both antisrp and antihmgcr aabs target intracellular proteins and. Muscle side effects are relatively common and include asymptomatic elevation of serum creatine kinase ck, myalgia, proximal muscle weakness and rhabdomyolysis. Unlike selflimited statin myopathy, this condition usually requires aggressive immunomodulation therapy to assist. Statinassociated autoimmune myopathy saam is a very rare form of muscle damage caused by the immune system in people who take statin medications. There are several potential causes, but there is no cure. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is a serious, but rare muscle disease strongly associated with autoantibodies to either signal recognition protein srp or 3hydroxy3methylglutarylcoa reductase hmgcr. The utilization of this combinatorial immunoassay provides accuracy and speed in diagnosis of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam. New research is painting a more distinct picture of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam, a subcategory. Statinassociated necrotizing autoimmune myositis nam is an autoimmune condition characterized by severe acuteonset proximal muscle weakness, a very high creatinine kinase ck level, and prominent myofiber necrosis and minimal lymphocytic infiltration on muscle biopsy. Necrotizing myopathy refers to a muscle disorder that involves necrosis or muscle cell death as seen on the muscle biopsy.
More recently, a subset of cases of immunemediated. High risk of cancer in autoimmune necrotizing myopathies. Early diagnosis facilitates better prognosis through initiation of aggressive immune treatments, typically requiring more than 1 agent, and discontinuation of statin medications. Atypical presentation of necrotising autoimmune myopathy. Methods a comprehensive search of pubmed, embase, cochrane library and. A combination of consistent findings on physical examination, the presence of anti hmgcoa reductase antibodies in a person with myopathy, evidence of muscle breakdown. In the remainder, nam was associated with statin medication, cancer, or. Various statins are associated with this condition, which suggests that this phenomenon is a drug class effect and is not specific to any. More recently, an immunemediated necrotizing myopathy has been found to be associated with statin use which in most cases requires treatment with immunosuppressants. Immunemediated necrotizing myopathy imnm is a relatively newly recognized category of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy iim. Statinassociated myopathy comprises of a spectrum of conditions ranging from benign myalgias to statininduced immunemediated necrotizing myopathy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is a recently defined subcategory of the acquired idiopathic myopathies, characterized clinically by the subacute onset of proximal weakness, elevated creatine kinase levels, and electromyography revealing an irritable myopathy.
Mar 21, 20 although statin myotoxicity is usually self. Features and outcomes of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. A rare case of statininduced immunemediated necrotizing. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies are strongly associated with specific aabs in twothird of cases.
Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam, also known as. It should be considered in patients who develop proximal muscle weakness and marked elevated creatine phosphokinase while taking statin therapy. They identified categories ranging from myalgias with or without ck elevation to the relatively new identification of statininduced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy sinam. Necrotizing myositis is a newly described inflammatory myopathy that has an autoimmune etiology and may be associated with antisignal recognition particle autoantibodies. They have been associated with connective tissue disorders, viral infections, malignancy, antisignal recognition particle srp and anti3hydroxy3methylglutarylcoenzyme a reductase protein with or without the use of statins. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is categorized as one of the idiopathic immune mediated myopathies. Statininduced necrotising autoimmune myopathy sinam is a rare disease characterised by proximal muscle weakness and elevated creatine kinase levels that is usually in the thousands. Muscle weakness due to necrotizing myopathy musculoskeletal. A 60yearold man experienced muscle pain and cramping within 18 months of initia ting statin treatment, followed by bilateral proximal lower limb and hand grip weakness that progressed over 8 months.
It usually presents with severe proximal weakness, lower extremity weakness, and severe fatigue while very rarely does it present with dysphagia and respiratory muscle. It is often accompanied by statin therapy, connective tissue diseases, cancer, and autoantibodies specific for signal recognition particle srp or 3hydroxy3methylglutarylcoenzyme a reductase. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is categorized as one of the idiopathic immunemediated myopathies. Among autoimmune manifestations associated with statins, there is immunemediated necrotizing myopathy imnm. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies pathophysiology is still poorly understood, notably because of a lack of animal models. It is often accompanied by statin therapy, connective tissue diseases, cancer, and autoantibodies specific for signal recognition particle srp or 3hydroxy3methylglutarylcoenzyme a reductase hmgcr. Hoogendijk je, amato aa, lecky br, choy eh, lundberg ie, rose mr, et al. There is a difference between necrotizing myopathy and immune mediated necrotizing myopathy imnm. As with other types of myositis, there is no known cause or cure for necrotizing myopathy. Autoimmune hepatitis aih is an inflammatory disease of the liver. May 01, 2014 necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is a rare form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized clinically by acute or subacute proximal muscle weakness, and histopathologically by myocyte necrosis and regeneration without significant inflammation. We describe a rapidly progressive case of sinam in a 66yearold haitian female who developed debilitating symptoms after one month of statin use. Atorvastatininduced necrotizing autoimmune myositis.
Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy was idiopathic in half of this cohort with clinical and histopathologically defined disease. Increasing incidence of immunemediated necrotizing. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is a rare form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized clinically by acute or subacute proximal muscle weakness, and histopathologically by myocyte necrosis and regeneration without significant inflammation. Differentiating necrotizing myositis from polymyositis.
The necrosis can be caused by a variety of reasons and may include toxic myopathies, druginduced myopathies, muscular dystrophies, thyroid disease, etc. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is characterized pathologically by necrotic muscle fibers with absent or minimal inflammation. While selflimited statin myopathy is relatively common, statininduced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy sinam is extremely uncommon, with incidence of two cases per million per year. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy genetic and rare diseases. Statininduced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy jacc. Definition of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy is based on pathological features following the european neuromuscular centre enmc criteria hoogendijk et al. Recently, new pathological descriptions of immune myopathy were suggested, including necrotizing aim nam, which is synonymous with immunemediated necrotizing myopathy imnm and is now recognized as an entity distinct from pm. Necrotising autoimmune myopathy nam is a rare form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Anti3hydroxy3methyl glutaryl coenzyme a reductase hmgcr antibodies are associated with sinam. Myopathy is a general medical term used to describe a number of conditions affecting the muscles. The formation of tubular aggregates ta within muscle fibers has been associated with toxic, metabolic, and hereditary myopathies, congenital myasthenic syndromes cms,1 and recently with pembrolizumabassociated myopathy. Statins are a wellrecognized cause of a variety of skeletal myopathic effects, which generally resolve when discontinuing the treatment. It is characterized by the predominant presence of necrotic muscle fibres with minimal or no inflammatory infiltrates in muscle biopsy and a variable degree of response to immunosuppressive treatment.
Statininduced immunemediated necrotizing myopathy is an autoimmune condition wherein there is a destruction of normal skeletal muscular architecture that can be severely debilitating if not recognized promptly. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam is a relatively recently discovered subgroup of inflammatory myopathies. Pdf statins and immunemediated necrotizing myopathy. It can be associated with myalgia, dysphagia, dyspnoea, fatigue and weight loss. Clinical features and treatment outcomes of necrotizing. There is a difference between necrotizing myopathy and immunemediated necrotizing myopathy imnm. The four main types of chronic, or longterm, inflammatory myopathies are. Nam is characterized by predominant muscle fiber necrosis and regeneration with little or no inflammation. It usually presents with severe proximal weakness, lower extremity weakness, and severe fatigue while very rarely does it present with dysphagia and respiratory muscle weakness. The incidence of sinam is not known, but it is estimated to occur in about 2 to 3 of every 100,000 treated patients. It is characterized by subacute predominantly proximal weakness, elevated serum creatine.
The present article summarizes the main features of statinrelated imnm, describing diagnosis, classification, epidemiology, treatment, and the. Necrotizing myopathy can also be referred to as necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam or immune mediated necrotizing myopathy imnm. A combination of consistent findings on physical examination, the presence of anti hmgcoa reductase antibodies in a person with myopathy, evidence of muscle breakdown, and muscle. Statin use, cancer, and connective tissue disorder are the usual associated risk factors. Clinical course and treatment of antihmgcr antibody. Treatment and outcomes in necrotising autoimmune myopathy. Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy nam, also known as immune. Immune mediated necrotizing myopathy imnm is a unique form of myositis that is characterized by distinct muscle biopsy features including abundant myofiber necrosis, degeneration, and regeneration with only minimal, if any, inflammation on muscle biopsy.616 1324 359 171 567 1176 424 408 1179 383 740 528 1318 675 1052 20 926 395 1117 1006 153 121 1465 490 346 954 43 998 614 568 674